Wednesday, December 27, 2017

The Unknown Cureloms and Cumoms- Part II

Continuing with the two animals found in Ether as described by Moroni for an even greater understanding of them as being more useful to man than the horse and donkey and as useful as the elephant. 
    It might also be of interest to note that some of the extinct llamas were considerably larger than today’s living forms. One type stood seven feet tall at the shoulder, and another species six feet. Not only is there good evidence for the co-existence of American llamas and man, but also that these animals could be domesticated (Kurtén, Björn; Anderson, Elaine, Pleistocene Mammals of North America, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, p. 307; Donald K. Grayson, "Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America: Taxonomy, chronology, and explanations," Journal of World Prehistory, Springer Netherlands: 5 (3): 1991, pp 193–231). 
    It was stated by anthropologist Ricardo Latcham that New World camelids (the llamas) were domesticated in pre-Columbian times (Ricardo E. Latcham, “Los Animales domésticos de la América precolombiana,” Museo de Etnologíay Antropología de Chile 3 (1922)). Archaeologist Jane Wheeler claimed that the domestication of the llama goes back several thousand years (Jane Wheeler, “Evolution and origin of the domestic camelids,” Rocky Mountain Llama and Alpaca Association ILR Report 8 (2003), pp1-14). This would put it in the time of the Jaredites in America.
Even today, the Llama can be trained to do numerous things, like pulling carts, being ridden by an adult rider, packing large loads, etc. Overall, it fulfilled the purpose to the early Peruvians up through and including the Inca period similar to the roll the Buffalo fulfilled for the Plains Indians in North America, only far more valuable since the Llama and Alpaca were domesticated

As far as being an especially useful animal, consider the uses for which the llama has been used by man. As stated by Walker et al., “It is easy to realize the importance of the llama to the indigenous Indian, as he utilizes it almost 100%, from its smallest hairs to its most insignificant droppings. Jerked llama meat nourishes the Indian; its woven fleece keeps him warm; its hide is made into the crude sandals with which he is shod; its tallow is used in making candles; braided, the long hairs serve him as rope; and the excrement, dried, constitutes a fuel” (Ernest P. Walker, et al., Mammals of the World Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1968, 1377). Additionally, the llama makes a very good guardian of flocks, and its pelt is used for blankets and outerwear. All these items make the llama an extremely useful animal for man, in fact, it would, indeed, be difficult to find a more useful animal to man than the two mentioned here, the llama and the alpaca.
Llamas are beasts of burden, and can carry large loads as well as assist in hunting, being quiet, docile, with soft-padded feet making them quiet; they have also been used as military pack animals, as well as animals in combat situations

Llamas are native to altitudes of 9,000-14,000 feet on the altiplano of the Andes Mountains of South America. They are naturally adapted to mountainous terrain and have extremely low impact within that environment. They are very efficient browsers eating small amounts of many varieties of forage (they eat only 5-10% the intake of a horse or mule) and are able to sustain themselves in the backcountry without supplement or heavy impacts. They have relatively low water requirements and can go for extended periods without water. In addition, they have a soft, padded hoof which gives them superior traction and negligible impact on trails and vegetation over which they traverse. 
    Llamas are very hardy and strong and can carry loads on or off trail at the highest elevations. Their low-key disposition makes them safe and easy to handle, while their intelligence and individual personalities blend them into the social structure of an outing.
Their gait is evenly matched to that of the average person or hiker and their quiet demeanor is an asset both on the trail and in camp. These qualities offer wilderness users, hunters and the military a pack animal that fits easily into their existing routine, preserves the aesthetics of their experience, and at the same time extends their range and comfort without attracting attention to themselves or their presence and without having to bring extra food for the animals. They allow children, seniors, and people with disabilities to more easily access destinations beyond road corridors. Trail maintenance crews, fire fighters, photographers, fishermen, hunters, climbers and others requiring additional capacity find llamas to be an ideal solution. Impacts are spread more evenly throughout the backcountry without the degradation caused by conventional pack animals. This provides an enhanced experience for those who follow.

    Llamas have proven to be highly effective pack animals for use with hunting. Their low maintenance requirements, self sufficiency, quiet demeanor, and ability to work off trail are all assets for hunting. Their load capacity of 80-100 pounds on or off trail allows setting and supplying remote camps as well as hauling meat from successful hunts in those areas. A llama doesn't require much--two to three pounds in the way of supplemental feed or equipment so virtually all their carrying capacity is used to haul hunting payload. Llamas are able to forage for all their own feed and to work at full capacity with intermittent availability of water. They are able to stay picketed in camp without oversight for extended periods. This simplifies campsite requirements and expands the range of suitable sites.

    Llamas have been used as pack animals since the very beginning of their relationship with humans. A llama can carry up to 400 pounds, requires less maintenance than a horse, can forage for itself, and can even stay at camp with nearly zero oversight for hours at a time. Llamas are also intelligent creatures with a fierce protective streak, especially against predators. For this reason, the animals have often been trained to replace sheep dogs for safeguarding livestock against carnivores like coyotes and wolves.
    Llamas travel quietly as their padded hoof creates no loud hoof strike and their only vocalizing is occasional soft humming, “They are non-reactive around meat and the smell of blood and they can efficiently carry meat from rough, remote kill sites. One hunter can easily load multiple llamas and subsequently handle them packing in a string. Ease of handling and quiet demeanor allow hunters to scout and hunt with llamas in tow without scaring or spooking their quarry. The llamas’ acute vision, hearing, and sense of smell can be valuable assets in spotting or locating game for observant hunters employing them in their hunt.

    Lastly, their fleece has been shorn for thousands of years. In addition to its phenomena performance and comfort, llama fleece is one of the most sustainable and low-impact products on the planet. It’s a product with far-reaching benefits—for the world, for conscientious consumers, and especially for the growers and artisans of the Andes. In addition, alpacas have even finer fleece, though llamas are larger than alpacas, the latter produce more wool per animal than llamas, although some llamas, such as the Argentines, are known to produce a much denser fleece more closely related to alpaca density.
    Alpaca fiber has a lot of crimp and is known to be coveted for its use in clothing. Both llamas and alpacas can produce suri fiber, a type of wool that is pencil-locked to the skin. Although llamas were not originally bred for wool production, through selective breeding (artificial selection), the llamas have a soft single fleece type coat that is free of guard hair and is used to make garments and used in textiles.
    Simply put, nowhere else in the entire Western Hemisphere, if not the world, can we find two animals that would have been unknown in New England America in 1829, that are as useful to man as the llama and alpaca of Andean South America.

No comments:

Post a Comment