Monday, August 19, 2019

Land of Promise Features that Cannot Be Ignored—Where are they in Mesoamerica or the Heartland/Great Lakes? Part X

Continuing with comparing the scriptural record descriptions and consider where these points are in either of the more northern theories claimed by theorists.
Great Tower
One of the features mentioned in the scriptural record is a “very high tower” built next to the temple in the city of Nephi. As Mormon wrote of king Noah: “He built a tower near the temple; yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about” (Mosiah 11:12).
The tower base of the main, round tower that was about six stories tall and could look out over the entire Cuzco Valley and up the side valleys

This was the hill that Noah “caused many buildings to be built in the land Shilom; and he caused a great tower to be built on the hill north of the land Shilom, which had been a resort for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people” (Mosiah 9:13)
    This was the temple that was built near the fortress on top of the hill overlooking the areas of Shilom and Nephi (Moaish 7:5,16; 9:8).
    Now the land of Shilom was adjacent to the Land of Nephi, or part of it, for when the Nephites escaped heading toward the North on their way to Zarahemla, they had to travel around the land of Shilom (Mosiah 22:8), and they took “their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren” (Mosiah 22:11).
    Thus, when the evil king Noah was taxing his people and using the money to build all sorts of buildings (Mosiah 11:2,8-9), he built towers in the City of Nephi and in the City of Shemlon. One of those towers was next to the temple, where he built a great tower that was very high so he could look out over the land and from which he could see clear to the Land of Shemlon (Mosiah 11:13) where the Lamanites lived at the time. This is the same tower that king Noah got upon (Mosiah 19:5), hoping to escape from Gideon, king Lamoni’s chief captain of the army. And Noah’s life was spared when he saw an approaching Lamanite army coming into the valley to attack the Nephites (Mosiah 19:6).
    Now, in the Heartland and Great Lakes areas claimed to be the Land of Promise, we do not find the remnants of any tower or temple in the areas of Iowa or Tennessee where the city of Zarahemla has been suggested to have stood. Wile there are numerous buildings in Mesoamerica, none seem to fit the criteria of being a tower for the sole purpose of looking out over the land claimed to be the city of Nephi, which in southern Mexico is the area of present-day Mexico City, which is a reclaimed swampy island amidst a large, flat land—No hills in sight.
Overall complex: Red: Zig-Zag 3-tier wall across the open end; Dk. Blue: Old Fortress with underground labyrinth of tunnels and rooms; Lt. Green: Original Temple; Yellow: Great Tower Base; White: Parade Ground or Open Area (built up on raised platform); Lt. Blue: Old Wall around inner complex; Lt. Brown: Cliff overlooking valley

However, in Cuzco, Peru, on a hill overlooking the Valley, is a fortress complex called Sacayhuaman where Nephi built his temple like Solomon’s and where only the foundation remains today. When the Spanish entered Cuzco, they could see three towers up on the hill beside the huge fortress, their positions today are indicated only by faint outlines on the highest sections of the ruins. The main tower, called Muyucmarca, a large round structure that rose some 60-feet according to the Spanish, is sometimes mistaken for a solar calendar due to its round shape, but in fact this was once the political core of the entire complex.

This structure had multiple functions, serving as a defensive tower, a reservoir for water and food, an arms depot, and especially a lookout overlooking the entire valley and “round about.” The other two were called the Paucamarca and Sallacmarca towers. All three stood until the final Inca rebellion around 1568 when the last Inca Emporer jumped to his death from the main tower. After that, the Spanish tore all three towers down, leaving only the stone foundations.
    For years, uninformed archaeologists and anthropologists claimed the circular tower base was the eye of the Puma and it was not until an old chronicle of a Spanish conquistador historian was read through and it was learned that the towers existed and exactly where they were located.
Cut and Dressed Stone
There were two types of building in the Americas anciently: 1) Wood, that does not last and would be  hard to identify, especially after urban sprawl ate up the early settlement areas, and 2) Stone, which lasts and lasts and lasts, and would certainly be distinguishable today, even in areas where cities have been built around them.

Which construction method has given rise to numerous disagreements between North American theorists and those of Meso and South America. Perhaps a key to this is to determine what the purpose of the building was to achieve. Obviously, building flimsy houses would serve little more than a temporary abode, especially for those who moved about a lot.
    In North America, as an example, the earliest known buildings were wikiups—a crude, roughly built hut or cabin, which provided some shelter and privacy for its occupants. In the northeast, these were made out of tree branches bent into curved shapes for an arched framework overlaid with tree bark, hides, or mats. No such structures existed in the Middle East where Nephi originated (including Sam and Zoram).
Wood: While numerous wood buildings were constructed anciently in North America, these did not appear until Europeans (other than the Spanish) arrived in the country. The Spanish built solely out of rock and stone with stucco or plaster covering the rocks and then painted—sometimes their walls and floors were fitted with terra cotta tiles made of baked clay and ceramics for greater longevity, strength and durability. Such wood construction of Europe was not known in the Middle East and certainly not in or around Jerusalem.
Even brick buildings need wood for framing structures (doorway, stairs), and especially for ceilings, even in multi-story buildings where they hold up the second floor 

Mud and Brick: Such construction of bricks made of mud and straw was typical of Egyptian construction. More substantial building was cutting and shaping giant stones made from limestone, sandstone, and red granite, the latter made into columns was also predominant in Persia and other areas of the middle East.
Stone: Building with stone was used almost exclusively in the Middle East. In fact, all of the great civilizations and religions began in the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula. Long before the great civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, advanced cultures flourished in the Mesopotamian plain, with cobblestone streets and stone building, where cut and dressed stonework architecture had its beginnings. While wood was insubstantial, stone was sturdy, extremely strong and durable.
    It would be only natural that Nephi, who taught his people to be industrious and work with their hands (2 Nephi 5:17), and how to make buildings and work with different mediums, including wood, iron, copper, brass, steel gold, silver, and precious ores (2 Nephi 15), would have taught his people how to build as they did in and around Jerusalem, which would have been his only experience.
Kuelap in Andean Peru built of stone walls, ramps, and defensive positioning, and within, small wood structures for living

Dressed stone is a stone that has been worked to a desired shape; the faces to be exposed are smooth, usually ready for installation. It begins with making patterns, or templates, to which a stone is to be cut to fill a certain place in an arch, wall or building as well as any other complicated piece of stonework. In practice, the stonemason makes a drawing of the intended stonework, showing where the joints in the face are to be located, and the stone cutter then details each block and cuts it to fit exactly with the others. It is therefore important for the stonemason to understand the different finishes to which stone is dressed with a pitching chisel. The face of the stone is left rough, just as it comes from the quarry, and the joints, or edges, are pitched off to a line. As this finish requires very little work, rock-faced dressing is cheaper than any other kind, especially when granite or hard limestone is used.
Stone Walls. It should also be noted that in the days of Moroni, he and his army built stone walls around the cities, and all around land and the borders of the land (Alma 48:8).
Stone walls were built all around the land, all around the cities, and even to the borders of the land

Now stone is extremely durable and such walls would be found today in the Land of Promise. And since these walls were built for defense (Alma 48:9), they would not be some rocks stacked together, but stone walls that could not be breached by an army (Alma 48:10).

Now it is obvious that there were no stone buildings, temples, or walls anywhere in North America dating to Nephite times. Stone walls, or significant portions of such would easily be seen today, but not a single incident of such walls has ever been located. 
Nephi’s magnificent temple like unto Solomon’s which was constructed with cut and dressed stone
Stone Temple. When Nephi built his temple, he said,And I, Nephi, did build a temple; and I did construct it after the manner of the temple of Solomon save it were not built of so many precious things; for they were not to be found upon the land, wherefore, it could not be built like unto Solomon's temple. But the manner of the construction was like unto the temple of Solomon; and the workmanship thereof was exceedingly fine” (2 Nephi 5:16).
    It would have been unthinkable for Nephi to have built a house to the Lord similar in content and purpose, and like Solomon’s in construction, ie., cut and dressed stone.
    There simply is no such building anywhere fund in North America. 
    So where are the towers, stone buildings, stone temple, stone walls all around the land, in North America. They simply do not and never have existed there.

No comments:

Post a Comment