Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Comparing Various Lands of Promise With the Scriptures – Part II

Continuing with the list shown in the last post (and below) of the various scriptural record descriptions of the Land of Promise and how any model must meet each and every one of these descriptions listed by Mormon in the scriptural record. To make sure there are no shenanigans used here, as often found in such lists of other Theorists, we list the full scripture, the existence or lack of existence in other models (under “elsewhere”), and the existence in the Andean South America area.
A Chart showing 31 major points of the Land of Promise in the scriptural record, all of which match Andean Peru and how so few other areas have any or much in the way of these descriptions. Those marked in yellow were covered in the previous post
    • Scripture: And we did find all manner of ore, both of gold, and of silver, and of copper” (1 Nephi 18:25). “Both gold and silver and copper” also suggests that these three ores (both gold and silver as precious ore, and copper as non-precious ore) were found in single locations, i.e., the same ore had all three metals.
    Elsewhere: While gold, silver and copper are scattered in many areas around the world, it is amazing how many areas have none at all. Take the U.S., a heavy producer of all three metals, yet east and north of the Mississippi River, the land is nearly void. There is no gold or silver in the great plains to speak of, which is the Heartland and Great Lakes areas, though copper has been found in that area. The chart above is based upon each of these metals found in a top fifty country, i.e., Guatemala, as an example, is 37th in the world in gold production, so it is listed on the chart; however, Peru is 5th, Chile 14th, Colombia 21st, Bolivia 28th, and Ecuador 35th, all in the Andean area and ahead of Guatemala in Mesoamerica. And while Mexico is 18th, its top three gold mines are not in Mesoamerica.
    Andes: The Andean area of South America, especially Peru and Chile have long been world leaders in the production of gold, silver and copper. As an example, Gold: Peru 5th, Chile 14th; Silver: Peru 3rd, Chile 7th; Copper: Chile 1st, Peru 3rd; or another example: Copper: Chile and Peru produce 4,464,389 Metric tons; all of Mexico, Guatemala, etc. Mesoamerica produces 172,093 Metric tons. And, as a further note, in the entire Western Hemisphere, gold, silver and copper, found in single ore, is notably found in Peru and Chile.
    • Scripture: we have been led to a better land, for the Lord has made the sea our path, and we are upon an isle of the sea” (2 Nephi 10:20).
    Elsewhere: The Heartland and Great Lakes models could not be reached from the sea. In order to reach their West Sea (Lake Erie) for a landing, entrance into the U.S. would have to be achieved via a river (St. Lawrence or Mississippi), and as has been shown here in the past, these and other inland waterways and rivers were blocked and did not reach the Great Lakes area, or internal U.S., because of shoals, rapids, and shallow depths. Mesoamerica, Baja, Central America and Malaysia could all be reached via the sea, though winds and currents would be a major hindrance to such voyages as has been pointed out here in the past.
    Andes: Only the central coast of Chile to Peru could have been reached by a drift voyage, “driven forth before the wind.” And, according to geologists, the western area of South America anciently, including much of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, western Bolivia, and central to northern Chile were above water west of where the Andes mountains now rise, forming an island since the area to the east was mostly submerged beneath the surface.
    • Scripture: we have been led to a better land, for the Lord has made the sea our path, and we are upon an isle of the sea” (2 Nephi 10:20). This island, surrounded by four seas (north, south, east and west) is verified in Helaman 3:6.
    Elsewhere: No other area so far submitted as a model has been shown to have been an island in 600 B.C. and up to the time of the crucifixion described in 3 Nephi, except Andean South America.
    Andes: The area now west of the Andes was an island prior to the crucifixion and destruction heralded in 3 Nephi. Samuel the Lamanite described mountains arising “whose height is great” which match the Andes. The Amazon basin and much of the rest of South America were below the surface, creating an East Sea, which geologists have called the Pebasian Sea in the north and the Paranense Sea in the south, which led to the north and south portal seaways into the Atlantic, before the lengthwise ridge of the western Continent was uplifted.
    • Scripture: And they were lost in the wilderness for the space of many days, yet they were diligent, and found not the land of Zarahemla but returned to this land, having traveled in a land among many waters, having discovered a land which was covered with bones of men, and of beasts, and was also covered with ruins of buildings of every kind, having discovered a land which had been peopled with a people who were as numerous as the hosts of Israel” (Mosiah 8:8). “And I did teach my people to build buildings, and to work in all manner of wood, and of iron, and of copper, and of brass, and of steel, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious ores, which were in great abundance” (2 Nephi 5:15), and also “And I, Nephi, did build a temple; and I did construct it after the manner of the temple of Solomon save it were not built of so many precious things; for they were not to be found upon the land, wherefore, it could not be built like unto Solomon's temple. But the manner of the construction was like unto the temple of Solomon; and the workmanship thereof was exceedingly fine” (2 Nephi 5:16). See also 3 Nephi for a list of cities the Lord called “great.”
    Elsewhere: On the graph above, only Mesoamerica is checked besides the Andes, for only these two areas in all the models show buildings of various kinds and match the scriptural record. There are no such ruins of any type found in the other areas.
    Andes: Like Mesoamerica, the Andean area is full of the ruins of large cities matching the scriptural record.
    • Scripture: “we began to till the ground, yea, even with all manner of seeds, with seeds of corn, and of wheat, and of barley, and with neas, and with sheum” (Mosiah 9:9).
    Elsewhere: Certainly there were no crops in the Heartland or Great Lakes that Joseph Smith, a farmer, would not have known about and been able to name. In addition, grains and fruit seeds (Jerusalem, Bountiful) would not grow in tropical climates like Mesoamerica, Central America, and Malaysia; nor in Baja, with its salt marshes; coastal dunes; chaparral scrub; and forest, which is found in the mountains and extremely dry growing conditions; grains and fruit do grow in the Heartland, but not well in the higher temperatures of the Great Lakes.
    Andes: We have recorded here in numerous posts the Peruvian grains of quinoa and kiwichi, two of the most nutritious grains known and certainly on a par with corn, wheat and barley, whose existence and names (quinoa and kiwichi) were unknown in the U.S. until the 20th century.
    • Scripture: “with seeds of all manner of fruits” (Mosiah 9:9)
    Elsewhere: These fruit seeds were brought from Jerusalem (1 Nephi 8:1), meaning they were seeds from a Mediterranean Climate, which does not exist in any area other than Andean South America and California.
    Andes: As has already been stated, grains and fruits grow extremely well in central/coastal Chile (Mediterranean Climate), and also in the higher plateau valleys of Peru, whose unusual coastal winds create a near semi-Mediterranean climate.
(See the next post, “Comparing Various Lands of Promise With the Scriptures – Part III,” for more comparisons based on the original chart shown at the top of this post and the scriptural references cited)

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