Wednesday, August 23, 2017

What Do We Know About Noah’s Flood – Part II

Continuing from the previous post regarding what we know and don’t know about Noah’s Flood and the aftermath that ushered in the Ice Age and the subsequent division of the continents in Peleg’s time. 
    Immediately after this catastrophic Flood of Noah, and the following continental rupture and drift, “the shorelines found themselves approximately in the positions corresponding to maximum unbalance," according to Cook, "and they began a readjustment at a maximum rate at first with ever-decreasing rates of adjustment thereafter, as the global isostatic anomaly lessened exponentially—a situation that can be observed in all radio-carbon-calibrated depth vs. time results for these readjustments.”
    All of this global shoreline readjustment probably began only about 4200-4300 years ago (after the Flood in the days of Peleg), certainly not 10,000 years ago, let alone 100 million years ago, etc. as geologists and evolutionists claim.
Ice caps grew so large and thick that their weight was more than continents could handle, and ruptured the land 

Obviously, then, according to Cook, “these caps ultimately grew so tremendous in size and weight that they eventually ruptured, driving continental fragments (our present-day continents) several thousand miles apart and, after finally melting, filled with their waters the great basin formed between the major continental blocks”—namely, North and South America in the West and Eurosaia and Africa in the East, which gave us the arctic and Atlantic basins. This occurred as the result of the Earth’s internal heat, the rift between the modern western and eastern hemispheres, which resulted in literally pushing the two hemispheres apart.
    To better understand this, it is necessary to recognize that, according to geologists, the Earth’s interior has distinct physical layers without regard to composition.  The outer layer is comprised of a rigid sphere called the lithosphere, meaning “rocky sphere,” which includes the upper, solid part of the mantle and all of the crust.  The lithosphere “floats” above a zone known as the asthenosphere, meaning “weak sphere,” which behaves as a hot, spongy or pliable plastic. Both the continental and oceanic crust is a thin layer of distinctive chemical composition overlying the mantle. On the other hand, the lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, differing from the underlying asthenosphere by its physical and mechanical properties rather than its chemical composition. The lithosphere responds essentially as a rigid shell whereas the asthenosphere behaves as a very thick fluid. Deeper into the planet, the conditions of pressure and temperature steadily increase, with the rocks becoming hotter and denser the deeper you go and the weight of all the overlying rocks causing an increase in pressure as the decay of heavy radioactive elements like uranium deep in the core produces the increase in heat.
Thus, continents break up, due in part to this and the overload of the ice caps mentioned in the previous article. There were of course other factors involved (See Scientific Fallacies & Other Myths), including Seafloor Spreading, which gave added credence to Wegener’s postulated Continental Drift discussed in the previous article. This combination, in turn, led to the concept of Plate Tectonics, which is based on the Earth’s lithosphere being broken into a dozen or so rigid "plates” that float on the hot, malleable mantle like slabs of ice on a pond. Much of the Earth’s ancient history is the result of plates rifting into pieces to form new ocean basins and converging back together to form mountains and giant continents. Plate tectonics is the great unifying theory of geology. Virtually every part of the earth's crust and every kind of rock relates to the plate tectonic conditions that existed at the time it formed. There is very little in geologic history that makes sense except in the light of plate tectonics.
    This division then were in part created by, as Cook stated “the piling up of sediments removed from beneath the shields in radial glacial flow. When the load of sediments in the peripheral ring around an ice sheet becomes sufficiently large the crust begins to sink to form the basins.” These geosynclines, which are large-scale elongated depressions, or long troughs in the surface, or earth’s crust, containing masses of thousands or tens of thousands of feet of very thick sediment, volcanic rock and other deposits, including intrusion of crystalline igneous rock and regional uplift through folding, crumpling, and faulting along the axis of the trough complete the syncline—which, in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the now outdated belief that this was how mountains were formed.
Because the seafloor is characterized by mid-ocen ridges, which are caused by the rise of the hot mantle rock, when lava is extruded at any ridges, the rock it forms becomes magnetized and acquires the magnetic polarity that exists at the time the lava cools. As the crust moves away from mid-ocean ridges, it contains a continuous record of the Earth's changing magnetic polarity. It is interesting that, according to J.M. Hall and P.T. Robinson (Deep Crustal Drilling in the North Atlantic Ocean," Science, 1979, 204, pp573-586), "magnetic polarity of the ocean’s seafloors changes in patches down holes with no consistent pattern with depth, which would be expected with rapid formation of the basalt, combined with rapid field reversals, not the slow-and gradual formation with slow reversals" assumed by Uniformitarians (those opposed to the universal Flood and other cataclysmic events), and which is five hundred times faster than that seen in direct measurements of the field today, again verifying the cataclysmic event of a Flood, which is what Physicist Dr. Russell Humphreys suggests could have happened as a result of the Flood.
    There are two methods of seafloor spreading, since most plates diverge or move away from each other at mid-ocean spreading ridges, which are undersea mountains more than 12,000 feet high and 1,200 miles wide.  Molten rock moving upward by convection reaches the surface along these ridges and releases much of the Earth’s internal heat, and as the magna cools, it is pushed away from the flanks of the ridges.  Near the surface, the oceanic lithosphere is mostly basalt, a black, fine-grained volcanic rock, much heavier then granite. 
    The first is Seafloor Spreading: As molten rock rises to the surface, the entire oceanic lithosphere moves away from the spreading center.  In this way, new ocean floor constantly forms and slides away from either side of the ridge as solid plates of the lithosphere.  This process is responsible for the phenomenon known as “seafloor spreading.” 
    The second is Subduction Zone:  This is a boundary where two tectonic plates collide and, because of differences in density, one dives beneath the other.  Plates carrying oceanic rocks move across the face of the planet until they run into an obstruction, typically a continent, which is made of lighter rocks such as granite.  When the two plates collide, the heavier oceanic rocks subduct or sink downward underneath the lighter continent, usually forming a deep trench adjacent to the edge of the continent and are the deepest depressions of the Earth.
At one time, it was believed that land bridges existed between the existing continents and that the continents we know were always in their present position. However, this idea was first challenged as early as 1596 by the Dutch mapmaker Abraham Ortelius in his work Thesaurus Geographicus. Ortelius suggested that the Americas were "torn away from Europe and Africa by earthquakes and floods" and went on to say: "The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves, if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers carefully the coasts of the three continents."
    This led to the only belief in geology today regarding the formation of continents, which is Continental Drift, though it wasn’t until three centuries later in 1912 that it was was seriously considered as a full-blown scientific theory and introduced in two articles published by a 32-year-old German meteorologist we mentioned earlier named Alfred Lothar Wegener. He contended that the supercontinent Pangaea began to split apart.   
    Thus, we that science’s determination of the events regarding the division of the continents is possible only when taken into agreement with the fact that a cataclysmic event took place that allowed for such events to unfold. And that cataclysmic event was the Flood of Noah.
    This, then brings us back to the concept of time and the fact that the Earth could not be as old as geology claims, or the events they claim took place could not have happened and leave the residue that we see all around us in the way discussed above. This, then leads us to the discussion of Time based on radiocarbon dating and whether the Earth’s atmosphere was and is in balance—a factor Libby claimed and set his clock to read, though, by his own admission, was not what all his test and clock showed—or is not in balance, as factual data verifies, giving us a reading of Earth’s origination somewhere between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago.


  1. Good evidence of the Universal Flood can be found in Dean Sessions YouTube video:

    Dean Sessions presentation begins at about 43 minutes. But if you only have 5 minutes to spend, watch the last 5 minutes beginning about 1:39. This is a good introduction to his Universal Model found at

  2. DeVon,have you read the universal model books?

  3. DeVon: In Sessions’ book, there is a diagram on page 13 in chapter 1, which shows how “knowledge, wisdom, and intelligence interact in learning.” By “answering the 6 basic questions and breaking it up, it is claimed that you gain core knowledge by answering the who, what, where, and when questions, and wisdom (application) by answering the how and why questions.”  
    The problem is, when someone injects an unknown and unproven and totally unconventional idea into the equation, it skews the outcome, such as inserting a “comet” into the “what” portion, which then places it into the “why” and “how” as well. This is exactly what Session does when he introduces the comet idea of slowing the earth down for other events to then take place within his Universal Flood model. No matter the research, no matter the professional ideas, no matter the agreement from scientists, the idea of injecting a comet into the equation is simply an opinion, a speculation, which ultimately guides the outcome in the direction the author intends it to go. It is like John L. Sorenson claiming the Land of Promise was skewed 90º from north in order to accommodate Mormon’s north-south directions. In doing that, all the rest of his model makes sense.
    Consequently, the rest of his statement has little meaning: “As a person gains understanding about physical characteristics of things, and comprehension about the intangible components showing how and why they interact in the earth systems, together it brings increased intelligence, or light and truth (knowledge of things as they were, are, and will be). However, the “how” and “why” is completely skewed in one direction when the comet theory is inserted. Consequently, “Then you start the process over again with a higher level of learning,” is without merit in this case. It may be a great model to demonstrate how learning advances, but learning from inaccurate, speculative models has never advanced science or led to correct answers—which is shown in the case of Libby changing the outcome of his Carbon-14 time clock to read differently than his experiments showed. It has only clouded the issue and led to a ton of incorrect assumptions and attitudes.
    Again, while the concept of his idea may well be accurate, when you skew the factors, the parameters, the process, you change the outcome. Thus, if you remove the idea of the comet, then the idea he spends all this time on and years of research on, is invalid other than simply a hypothesis that, if there was a comet, might well be accurate. But since we can never determine or know that a comet passed the earth in 3000 B.C. or 2344 B.C., etc., and slowed down its rotation, then the idea of basing a theory upon such an unknown and unprovable renders any point made as simply moot and reduces what follows to a waste of time and effort.
    As a counter-point, we could say that the Lord ordered the earth to slow down and be on fairly firm ground since there is evidence in the Biblical record of such an event occurring through Him in the past, but then we should find some indication of such an act in the explanation Moses gives us of the Flood in his record. And we don’t.
    Consequently, while the events Sessions describes may well be scientifically accurate given those conditions and circumstances, since his cause of those events is unprovable and unreliable and without any possible validation except in theory, such a theory, running contrary to any suggestion in the scriptural record (of a comet or the Earth slowing down), then the idea remains simply someone’s speculation.

  4. Ira: I have read Volume I The Earth System. Volume II The Living System might be out later this year, and Volume III The Universe System will come thereafter.

    Del: Thank you for taking the time to look at part of the book and exposing the Comet Theory "weak link". And I agree with that being speculative! And it is very astute of you to find that so soon. However, I have carefully read the whole book cover to cover and reread several parts over again, and I think that single speculation will unfortunately lead many people away from evaluating the thousands of irrefutable scientific observations and scientific experiments cited in the book. My personal observation is that none of the evidence he provides (much of it related to a Universal Flood) found in the book has anything to do with the Comet speculation. The high price of his Universal Model books will deter most people from buying them. That is why I have been searching his free online videos. The one I cited above is the most informative one I have found so far. And I think it is adequate to show the simplicity and understandability (and independence from the Comet speculation) of his scientific observations and scientific experiments, without buying his book. I know that video is way too long, so here is a very short one that shows just one observation supporting a universal flood over the entire Earth:

    Along with the scientists investigating the bottom of the ocean, Dean Sessions has here observed the "recipe" for forming chalcedony. He has personally discovered (be experimentation) the recipe for forming quartz, petrified wood and bone, and many other rocks, using his small pressure chamber. Dean is probably the first person to produce man made geodes and petrified wood. All of these require water, pressure, and heat to form. Quartz is the most abundant mineral on Earth and is found in about 98% of all rocks. This quartz is in its crystalline form, which means it was never heated above 570 degrees, where it irreversibly turns into glass. That means that 98% of the rock on the Earth didn't come from magma or lava (above 2000 degrees), it was formed under the equivalent pressure of about 5 miles of ocean. So Dennis has debunked the "Rock Cycle Theory", "The Magma Theory", and I will mention just one more: "The Earth Age Theory". The Earth Age Theory originally came from investigation of the Arizona Canyon Diablo "meteor" crater. The age was based on the assumption that the “meteorite” material found outside the crater came from space. And it remains the "best" Earth Age Estimate according to the USGS web page:

    "The 'best' age for the Earth is based on the time required for the lead isotopes in four very old lead ores (galena) to have evolved from the composition of lead at the time the Solar System formed, as recorded in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. This "model lead age" is 4.54 billion years."

    Dennis Sessions has shown that the Arizona Crater and most of the other craters on Earth were actually Hydro-fountains and not meteor craters as commonly thought. So the commonly held Earth Age is based on an incorrect assumption.

    I have here presented just a few of the evidences cited in Dean Sessions book, and I hope it is enough to encourage others to look into it a little further. My take on Dean's Geology citations are that they appear very extensive and all inclusive, but it would take someone like Ira to confirm that. And Del's assessment would be invaluable to place Dean's work in proper perspective. Del: I hope you can look a little deeper and see if you still think all of his work is tainted by "Comet Speculation". I personally look forward to his Volume III The Universe System where my Physics background will allow me better analyze his findings.

  5. DeVon: Before going further, I would recommend you read "Scientific Fallacies & Other Myths" I have written and is on this blog as an ad. In it I show, using time-proven material from reputable and LDS geologic sources as well as numerous other scientists and is based on an Earth premnise of the water coming up out of the ancient acquifers illustrated when the Genesis accounts tells us the water was separated from the water, etc., and show that Earth was inundated from beneath as well as from above, etc., and how the oceans were formed as a result in the collapsing earth locations, etc. Anyway, just a thought.

  6. Thanks, I have ordered it for 2 day delivery. I'll let you know what I think.

  7. Not having read or watched these materials, the moving of a great mass of water from closer to the center of rotation to farther out, the rate of rotation will slow down.