Saturday, June 22, 2019

Urban Sprawl of Ancient Zarahemla – Part II

Continued from the previous post regarding the vast number of architectural sites in the greater Lima area that once made up a sizeable sprawling settlement covering a thousand square miles.
The ancient disbursement of numerous peoples and their settlements within the greater Lima area
It should be noted that three groups came to the Comarca of Lima: a) the Collas, who came from the mountain ranges around Cuzco; b) the Huallas, who descended from the upper Chancay to the coast; and c) the Huanchos, who began their expansion towards the coast from the heights of Huarochirí
    It should be noted that archaeologists and anthropologists claim that numerous different cultures settled in the Lima area over time; however, what is really known is that there were people there and their affiliation to a “culture” does not mean they were different people, only that they existed in different eras along a time line—and that is typically determined by such things as the use of, artistic abilities of, and style of ceramics. As an example there is one group claimed to have existed in the Lima area called the Ruicancho or Lurigancho, and is one of the pre-hispanic groups of the valleys of the central coast, of which often only their names are known. In fact, some of these groups origins and activities are so shrouded in antiquity, that most of what is considered “known” today, and found in numerous writings, books, and so-called history, is merely a fabrication of those who found and studied a particular group, arranging their lives and accomplishments based upon the most minimal of standards that has led to such great misunderstanding among today’s researchers and historians.
    Finally, as for the Lima Prehispanic its historiography is still incomplete, information is lacking that facilitates the studies, misconceptions are repeated and the current population expansion throughout the three valleys erase the old toponyms and wipe out the archaeological monuments, many of them without having been studied. At best, our knowledge of this vast area is extremely limited.
The major pre-historic settlement areas that make up the Greater Lima Area of today. Initially, the cultures began in Pachacamac, but eventually spread throughout this metropolitan area

What is stated by those who work this area is that certain named groups of people moved into the Pachacamac-Lima area:
1. Collas, or Kolla, who spoke the indigenous language of Aymara, no doubt in part from the earlier Aymara kingdoms or lacustrine kingdoms, and who came from the mountains of Cuzco, spreading along the left bank of the Chillón River, occupying it from Yangas to the Callao—a people who were excellent architects and stone carvers, who worshipped Huiracocha (Viracocha) the “Creator God.” This culture inexplicably collapsed in the first millennia AD.
2: The Huallas, who descended from the upper Chancay River to the east of Huaral, down to the coast at Chacray Mar and Pasamayo to the coast, founding towns such as Kara Huallas, Maranca, Huadca Hualla, Sulco and Marca Huillca. Originally in the mountain ranges around Lima, their migration into the lowlands to the coast for lbetter lands drove them into this greater Lima area.
3. The Huallas who began their expansion towards the coast from the heights of Huarochirí and through the channels of the Santa Eulalia and Rímac rivers, reached the middle part of this last valley, settling in Huachipa, Huacho Huallas, Carapongo, Huampaní , Caxamarquilla, Pariachi, Lati and Hurin Huancho.
    In addition, it is believed during the early pre-historic times that a single power or government was combined in the valleys of the Comarca, i.e., the valleys of Chancay, Chillón, Rimarc and Lurín (Jose Antonio del Busto Duthurburu, General History of Peru: Discovery and Conquest, 1978).
Among these three early cultures, the ancient disbursement of people and settlements within the greater Lima area is shown

It should also be noted that among these cultures, another emerged that is barely known to archaeologists and yet to be understood, called by them the Ruicancho or Lurigancho. In fact, this entire area of the Huanchos has been confused by the various different claims of numerous researchers as to their identity, but assumed to belong to the various cultural groups in time. In addition, this area of Lima prior to about 200 BC was a conglomeration of large buildings without structure or overall organization. From 200 BC onward, archaeologists claim the area became an established culture, upon whose shoulders the later Lima culture rested.
    This idea is one that should be of interest to those theorists, historians and researchers of the Book of Mormon, for this fits the time frame of the early Mulekites living in an unorganized settlement under the direction of caciques (local chiefs), and about the time that Mosiah discovered them, began to be established as a productive culture, building a considerable complex and civilization from that point onward.
    In the previous post, the area of Maranga was discussed, and it should be noted, that while this area underwent much construction over several centuries beginning around 500 BC, the complex experienced considerable reconstruction period between 200 BC and 150 AD, during what has been called the Maranga II, "Blanco sobre Rojo Tradition," where earlier construction was almost entirely replaced by new construction of the city complex. In fact, until the 20th century, the ruins of Maranga were known as Huática, though this name really applied only to a very old irrigation canal located east of Maranga.
    In the period following, called Maranga III, Lima Tradition (150 AD to 450 AD), the pyramids grew. Cubical adobe bricks were used as construction material and the existing huacas were extended with platforms, enclosures and passages. Walls were plastered and painted yellow. This architectural style can be found in the "Huaca Middendorf," the "Huaca San Marcos," the "Huaca Concha," and the "Huaca Potosi Alto.” This period is characterized by the overall growth of the complex and a sophisticated urban establishment of the site.
Huaca El Paraís

El Paraiso. 
In the greater Lima area near Maranga og the Chillón River valley, is the pyramidal complex originally called Chuquitanta but renamed El Paraiso (The Paradise), this Late Preceramic archaeological site is located in the Chillón Valley and one of the largest settlements from this period, encompassing over 143 acres of land. It was occupied at a time a time when settlements were broadly distributed, located at various distances from the coast allowing access to a variety of marine and agricultural resources. While it is generally accepted as a Preceramic site by most archaeologists, the occupation actually was in the Ceramic Period and ceramics have been found there, along with textiles, such as cotton.
    The site housed around 3000 people and was built with thick wall construction of stone quarried in local hills, and was either an economic or religious center or both. Built around a U-shaped central plaza of almost two acres, it resembles many nearby sites in the Chillón, Rimac and Lurín Valleys, and was likely a precursor to such later sites.
    It was originally excavated by Louis Stumer, then Thomas C. Patterson and Edward P. Lanning, and finally by Fréderick Engel between the 1950s and 1965. In December 2012 a new investigation and excavation project led by Mark Guillen started at El Paraiso. And after three months a groundbreaking discovery was announced. Archaeologists found an ancient temple located next to the main temple of El Paraiso. First excavations uncovered an underground ceremonial center comprising of 4 levels each older than the other. The construction is believed to have been built around 3000 BC. The inside discovered fire place where presumably offerings were burnt earned the ceremonial center the name "Templo el Fuego" (Fire Temple).
    It is now believed that the overall complex consisted of around 10 to 15 pyramidal structures. Unit I or the main temple of El Paraiso was assumedly a ceremonial center used by the community, with Unit IV used for feasting ceremonies associated with the other units.
(See the next post, “Urban Sprawl of Ancient Zarahemla – Part III,” for more on the vast number of architectural sites in the greater Lima area that once made up a sizeable sprawling settlement covering a thousand square miles, but now mostly covered over by building expansion of Lima area.

1 comment:


    From the same author Del recently quoted about the end of the Wari civilization- science has discovered that some ancient Latin Americans had light skin. They previously thought anyone with light skin must have mixed with Spanish and other Europeans.