Sunday, August 18, 2013

It’s Past Time to Bury the Big Bang – Part II

Continuing from the last post regarding the reasons why the Big Bang is in error and it is way past time to put it to rest (or bury it, so to speak). The first seven points were covered in the previous post:
8) Invisible dark matter of an unknown but non-baryonic nature must be the dominant ingredient of the entire universe. The Big Bang requires sprinkling galaxies, clusters, superclusters, and the universe with ever-increasing amounts of this invisible, not-yet-detected “dark matter” to keep the theory viable. Overall, over 90% of the universe must be made of something we have never detected for the Big Bang to be realistic. By contrast, Milgrom’s model (the alternative to “dark matter”) provides a one-parameter explanation that works at all scales and requires no “dark matter” to exist at any scale, excluding the additional 50%-100% of invisible ordinary matter inferred to exist). Some physicists don’t like modifying the law of gravity in this way, but according to Tom Van Flandern of the University of Maryland, in his “Possible New Properties of Gravity” paper in Astrophysics and Space Science, 1996, pp244,249-261, “a finite range for natural forces is a logical necessity (not just theory) spoken of since the 17th century.” And Milgrom’s model requires nothing more than that, which is an operational model rather than one based on fundamentals, and is consistent with more complete models invoking a finite range for gravity. This, then, is a basis to eliminate the need for “dark matter” in the universe at any scale and is one more Big Bang “fudge factor” no longer needed.
Galaxies congregate in clusters and superclusters, and at larger scales superclusters seem to blend into chains and filaments that span vast distances. These three superclusters will eventually smash together and give rise to one of the largest galaxy superclusters in the universe
9) The most distant galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field show insufficient evidence of evolution, with some of them having higher redshifts (z = 6-7) than the highest-redshift quasars. The Big Bang requires that stars, quasars and galaxies in the early universe be “primitive,” meaning mostly metal-free, because it requires many generations of supernovae to build up metal content in stars. But according to the Astrophysics Journal (2001, 122, pp2833-2857) the latest evidence suggests lots of metal in the “earliest” quasars and galaxies. Moreover, we now have evidence for numerous ordinary galaxies in what the Big Bang expected to be the “dark age” of evolution of the universe, when the light of the few primitive galaxies in existence would be blocked from view by hydrogen clouds.
10) If the open universe we see today is extrapolated back near the beginning, the ratio of the actual density of matter in the universe to the critical density must differ from unity by just a part in 1059. Any larger deviation would result in a universe already collapsed on itself or already dissipated. However, inflation failed to achieve its goal when many observations went against it. To maintain consistency and salvage inflation, the Big Bang has now introduced two new adjustable parameters: (1) the cosmological constant, which has a major fine-tuning problem of its own because theory suggests it ought to be of order 10120, and observations suggest a value less than 1; and (2) “quintessence” or “dark energy.” This latter theoretical substance solves the fine-tuning problem by introducing invisible, undetectable energy sprinkled at will as needed throughout the universe to keep consistency between theory and observations. It can therefore be accurately described as “the ultimate fudge factor.”
In order for the Big Bang theory to work, the Universe would have to be filled with 96% Dark Matter. The “Fudge Factor” is a description of a theory that is based on the inclusion of invisible, undetectable, and unknown matter into the mix—only scientists can get away with that. If you were to try that about Creation they would laugh you out of the room
Anyone outside of the astronomy field that is interested in astronomy has an excellent cause to doubt the Big Bang simply because of the numerous “fudges” involved. Obviously, such failures where imaginative inventions are needed to support an otherwise unsupportable theory is bound to fall into question since failures falsify the hypothesis. As an example, whenever the theory falls into question because it fails to meet a requirement, scientists merely invent another factor and amend their theory to account for all new, unexpected discoveries. This has been going on for so long with the Big Bang that many young scientists now think this is a normal process of science. They either forget or were never taught that a model has value only when it can predict new things that differentiate the model from chance and form other models before the new things are discovered.  Stated differently, explanations of new things are supposed to flow from the basic theory itself with at most an adjustable parameter or two, and not from add-on bits of new theory.
Naturally, papers written by scientists in support of the Big Bang do not count any of the prediction failures or surprises as theory failures as long as some ad hoc theory might explain them. And the “prediction successes” in almost every case do not distinguish the Big Bang from any of the four leading competitor models: Quasi-Steady-State, Plasma Cosmology, Meta Model, and Variable-Mass Cosmology. For the most part, these four alternative cosmologies are ignored by astronomers, and seldom mentioned by anyone—in fact, the vast majority of people who accept the Big Bang have never even heard of them.
11) Pencil-beam surveys show large-scale structure out to distances of more than 1 Gpc in both of two opposite directions from us. These large-scale structures appear as a succession of wall-like galaxy features at fairly regular intervals, the first of which, at about 130 (megaparsec) distance, is called “The Great Wall.” To date, 13 such evenly-spaced "walls" of galaxies have been found! The Big Bang theory requires fairly uniform mixing on scales of distance larger than about 20 Mpc, so there are far more large-scale structure in the universe than the Big Bang can explain.
12) Many particles are seen with energies over 60x1018 eV. However, that is the theoretical energy limit for anything traveling more than 20-50 Mpc because of interaction with microwave background photons. But this objection assumes the microwave radiation is as the Big Bang expects, instead of a relatively sparse, local phenomenon.
13) The Big Bang predicts that equal amounts of matter and antimatter were created in the initial explosion. However, today matter dominates the present universe. Big Bang claims that is so because of some form of asymmetry, such as CP violation asymmetry, that caused most anti-matter to annihilate with matter, leaving the matter. Yet, while experiments are searching for evidence of this asymmetry, so far nothing has been found, like many other ad hoc additions to the Big Bang. Obviously, other galaxies can’t be antimatter because that would create a matter-antimatter boundary with the intergalactic medium that would create gamma rays, which are not observed
(See the next post, “It’s Past Time to Bury the Big Bang – Part III,” for more of these reasons why the Big Bang is in error and it is way past time to put it to rest—or bury it, so to speak)

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